Arsenic in Drinking Water Causing Cancer Essay.
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Details: Sources for this paper must be obtained from my university\’s database. I will provide a few sources
that support my topic but feel free to look for more \”full text\” and
\”peer reviewed\” articles. Here are a list of steps in order to sign
in to the database and search for articles. 1) Go to www.uiw.edu 2)
Click on \”library\” located at the top right hand corner. 3)Click on
\”Find Articles/Databases\” under the \”Research Links\” section.
4)Click \”Academic Search Complete\” Username: kegarza2 Password:
Keg123456! Again make sure the articles are \”full text\” and \”peer
reviewed.\” I will also attach a few articles that support the topic
along with the rubric and guidelines for the research paper.
As I mentioned in my order, I have attached the rubric, guidelines,
and articles for my research paper. On the paper please cover the
following sections that are mentioned in the rubric: introduction,
materials and methods, results and discussions, and conclusion. I will
take care of the abstract and cover page as well as the sources page.
I was not sure if the source page and any pages that need graphs or
charts are included in the 6 pages I requested, but if they are I
would rather not have them included since I’m requesting the minimum
amount of pages needed of just words for my paper. However, if graphs
and charts are used without taking from the 6 pages I ordered would
they still be part of the final paper sent to me or will they not be
included? Let me know when you all can and if there are any questions.
Here’s a snippet of the essay.
Inorganic arsenic, which is often metabolised in humans into toxic methylated arsenicals, is known to be a potential carcinogen that causes tumours of the lungs, skin, urinary bladder, and other non-cancer effects (Radosavljevic & Jakovljevic, 2008). Arsenic is a significant contaminant and its organic and inorganic occurrence in the environment results from both natural and anthropogenic activities. Humans are mainly exposed to the organic forms – arsenite, AsO33-, and arsenate, AsO43-. Large populations in North and South America, as well as Millions more in India, Bangladesh, , and China are exposed high concentrations of organic form of arsenic through drinking water from geogenic sources (Kumar, 2010). Even as some areas experience low concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, complying with health-based standards is sometimes technically demanding and costly. This paper takes an empirical analysis into the problem of arsenic in drinking water and the carcinogenic impacts of arsenic. Several researches have been explored and results summarized to come up with concrete conclusions.
Materials and Methods
Methods: the study synthesizes a large body of research on arsenic exposure in drinking water, and the resultant health effect with emphasis on cancer.
Existing risk assessments of arsenic in drinking water have severally depended on epidemiological studies from exposure areas reaching levels of mg/L ranges. The viability of these findings in predicting effects of arsenic in low concentrations are debatable. Recently, numerous studies have been done to examine both non-cancer and cancer effects of inorganic arsenic. This paper reviews major epidemiological and toxicological data on cancer effects of arsenic in drinking water. The information accruing from the epidemiological studies will be consolidated with an aim of evaluating the reliability of the current cancer-risk assessments, and presenting conclusions on the cancer effects of arsenic in drinking water.
Finding and Discussions
In 2004, two authors from the department of Epidemiology in Mailman School of Public Health, Yu Chen and Habibul Ahsan published a study that explored the cancer effect of arsenic in drinking water, in Bangladesh. They assessed the potential burden of internal cancers caused by exposure to arsenic in Bangladesh. They estimated the risk of death from bladder, lung, and liver cancers using death probabilities, cancer mortality, and exposure distribution in Bangladesh, as well as dose-specific risk, estimates from Taiwan. Chen and Ahsan used a sample of 65,876 people to ascertain arsenic exposure distribution in Bangladesh; these distributed a source population for the cohort study on effects of arsenic in drinking water. Water samples from 5966 wells were collected and tested for arsenic in 2000. Well owners would be interviewed for the number and characteristics of regular users. Gender-specific mortality risks from lung, bladder, and liver cancers would be calculated from life table methods. They used poison regression models to calculate risk estimates that permitted the comparison of different levels of exposure to arsenic. Results showed at least a doubling effect on lifetime mortality resulting from bladder, liver, and lung cancers in Bangladesh because of arsenic in drinking water.