Concept of Adaptation Essay.

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Details:Task 1: Conduct three of the following experiments. Record your reactions, and be specific for each experiment. Experiment 1: Rub your index fingers gently over a piece of very coarse sandpaper a few times and rate its coarseness on a scale from 1 (very soft) to 7 (very coarse). After a minute or two, rub the same finger over the paper and again rate its coarseness. Did your perception of the coarseness change? How? Record your reaction. Experiment 2: Prepare one cup with sugar water and one with fresh water. Take a sip of the sugar water and swish it around in your mouth for several seconds without swallowing it. Gradually, it should taste less sweet. (Dispose of the sugar water) Taste from the cup containing fresh water. Did the taste of the fresh water surprise you? How? Record your reaction. Experiment 3: Take about 15 index cards and a flashlight that is opaque on all sides (so that light shines only through the front) into a very dark room. Place all 15 cards over the beam of light. Slowly remove the cards one at a time until you can barely detect the light, and then count the number of cards that remain over the light. After a few minutes, the light should begin to look brighter. When this is the case, add cards and see if you can still see the light. Repeat this process of gradually adding cards over a 15-minute period. Were you able to detect an increasingly dim light the longer you spent in the dark? Record your reaction. How many cards did it take to not see the light after time? Experiment 4: Fill 3 medium-sized bowls as follows: Bowl 1 – with very hot (but not painfully hot) tap water Bowl 2 – with very cold tap water Bowl 3 – with a mixture of the very hot and very cold water Arrange them, so your right hand is in front of the cold water, your left hand is in front of the hot water, and the lukewarm water is in the middle. Submerse your hands into the water (right into cold, left into hot) for about 3 minutes After 3 minutes, quickly transfer both hands to the lukewarm (middle) bowl. What did you sense? Record your reaction. In all four experiments, you will experience adaption. Task 2: Write a paper that describes adaption and how you experienced it in your experiments. The paper should cover the following. Fully describe the process and results of the experiments that you chose. What is sensory adaptation? Explain the concept of sensory adaptation. Refer to your text for the definition of sensory adaptation (this is not the general dictionary definition) Explain how adaptation is evident in each of your experimental results. Provide a comprehensive description of the sensory systems that are involved in the experiments that you performed. This description should include what happens from the receptors to the brain. Your discussion should illustrate what was experienced in each experiment. Discuss how adaptation is important from an evolutionary perspective. Margins – set to one inch Font – 12pt. Times New Roman, no bold, or underline Title – center above the paper, 12 pt. font (Level A Heading), no bold, underline, or italics Pagination – every page; consists of a header containing a short title for the paper and page number placed in the upper right corner of the page Line Spacing – double space all work including the References Page Point-of-View – first or third person, objective; limit perspective to research; no personal opinion or narrative In-text citations – must conform to APA requirements References list – must conform to APA requirements

 

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In the first experiment, I rubbed my index fingers over sandpaper for several times and rated its coarseness on a scale of 1-7. I allowed my fingers to rest for two minutes before rubbing them on the same sandpaper for the second time. The first time I rubbed the sandpaper, it felt very coarse, and I rated its coarseness at 6. However, the sandpaper felt less coarse the second time, and I rated its coarseness at 3.

 

In the second experiment, I sipped sugar water and swished it in my mouth for several seconds before disposing it. The sugar water tasted less sweet as I swished it in my mouth. I immediately tasted fresh water, which tasted salty. In the final experiment, I filled three bowls with water at different temperatures. Bowl 1 had hot water bowl 2 had cold water and bowl 3 had a mixture of cold and hot water (lukewarm water). I dipped my left hand in the bowl with hot water and my right hand in the bowl with cold water simultaneously. I allowed the hands to stay in the bowls for 3 minutes. At first the temperatures felt extreme, but after several seconds, the temperatures felt normal. After three minutes, I dipped my hands in the lukewarm water. I felt as if I had reversed my hands such that my right hand was dipped in hot water, and my left hand in cold water.

 

Sensory adaptation is a characteristic of human senses that enables them to decrease their responsiveness to continuous or persistent stimuli (Franzoi, 2010). Sensory receptors respond better to changing stimulation than to the same level of stimulation Sensory adaptation is involuntary and can only be reversed by either eliminating or changing the stimuli. Sensory adaptation occurs because nerve cells fire less frequent signals to the brain at high levels of stimulation than when a stimulus is introduced. Adaptation to sounds or noise is slower than the adaptation to smells, skin sensations, and tastes. Sensory adaptation enables living things to find balance with their environment and respond to changes in their environment. (Nevid, 2012).

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