Early Intervention of Learning Disabilities among adolescents Essay.

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Research Paper Marking Component Description Marks Introduction A good introduction should be well written and to the point. It will have the following components: An interesting, concise introduction to the topic. A statement of the rationale and purpose of the paper. An outline of the structure of the paper. /10 Body: Review of the Literature A good literature review will include the following components: An integrated and comparative discussion of 12 or more current, primary research articles. (Primary research articles are where the author is reporting on his or her research findings. This includes reports of empirical studies, review articles, theoretical articles, methodological articles, and case studies. It does not include letter\’s, book reviews, overviews, news articles, and general information web sites.) These articles were found in an online or library based database. Limitations and strengths of the research articles are discussed. The articles chosen are directly related to the topic and to the course. Each study is described so that the participants, measures, variables, and methodology are clear. Only relevant information is included. The results are described in a way that advances the idea that is being developed. The key findings are highlighted and interpreted. /50 Discussion and Conclusions A good discussion and conclusion will include: Clear, logical conclusions drawn from the Literature Review. Well founded recommendations for further research. Creative and careful thought about the findings. A strong conclusion that summarizes the purpose of the paper, the findings, and the conclusions drawn from the findings. /25 Style Written using APA format. Uses headings for organization. The Introduction, Literature Review, Discussion, and Conclusion should be labeled (centered). Subheadings can also be used (left justified). Do not use bold or underlining in the headings. Makes use of running heads on each page. References are in APA format. Uses a title page with the name of the paper, your name, and course name identified. All centered on the page. Uses specific, concrete language. Avoids vague generalities. Sentences are no longer than is necessary. Avoids use of lay terms and colloquialisms. Avoids the use of first person language “I†and “we.†Paragraphs are well structured with an opening statement and end with a concluding statement and link to next section. 15 Total /100 Previous

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The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) acknowledges that there exists an urgent need to address critical issues that relate to adolescent literacy, and in return advocates for effective instruction on reading and writing, as well as proper early interventions for learning disabilities (LD). According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, (2010) over five million children and adolescents are living with some form of mental illness. The various types of mental disorders include anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, pervasive development disorders, eating disorders, affective disorders, and schizophrenia.

Background

                  As majority of the illnesses manifest during adolescence and young adulthood, it has become extremely important to have early intervention and possible prevention. According to walker, (2002) adolescents tend to be susceptible to mental illness because to rapid development, brain growth, and new manifestation of genetic risk factors. Other research has indicated that over 75% of lifetime mental disorders are diagnosed by the age of twenty-four (Kessler et al. 2005). According to Kessler et al. untreated mental illness may interfere with social learning, education, and hinder the youth from achieving their full potential as adults. In response to state of learning disabilities, state and national initiatives as Healthy People 2010 have developed 21 Critical Health Objectives for Adolescents and Youths, which have highlighted the significance of early intervention and prevention (Mental Health Services Act, 2004).

Early prevention and intervention of mental health and learning disabilities is crucial as it leads to better outcomes; it leads to faster and complete recovery. Early intervention also leads to low frequencies of relapse, and when a relapse occurs, it leads to a decrease in the severity. Early intervention and prevention programs have also been found to be less costly as they are not resource-intensive as hospitalization and treatment. Given the significance of adolescence in developing lifelong mental health, provision of intervention services at this phase may result in great economic as well as social benefits (McGorry et al. 2007). According to McGorry, adolescents with adequate mental health tend to be physically healthier, more socially responsive, and less likely to indulge in risky behavior.  Therefore, the mental well-being of an adolescent is crucial in their learning and daily living skills.

 

Literature Review

            The literature review is a comparative discussion of empirical studies on mitigating learning disabilities. Every study used in this section illustrates the aspect of early intervention of learning disabilities in regard to the types of disabilities, the methodology, the analysis, and results of the study. Each analysis is intended to bolster the existing literature on pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to learning disabilities.

Family-based Intervention

              In 1997, Dadds and Spence conducted a study on prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders. In this study, they evaluated the effectiveness of family-based and cognitive-based group interventions for averting both onset and development of anxiety disorders in children. A total number of 1789 children aged between seven and fourteen years old would be screened for anxiety disorders using children’s self-report and teacher nominations. Recruitment and diagnostic interviews were conducted, later, 128 children would be selected and subjected to either a 10-week institutional-based psychosocial intervention between a child and the parent or a monitoring group. Both groups indicated significant improvements after the intervention. After a 6 months follow-up, it was noted that only the group that was placed in monitoring groups had maintained the intervention. In this group, the intervention had managed to prevent the recurrence of mental disorders, and reduced the prevalence of the existing anxiety disorders. Generally, the results indicated that anxiety disorders and problems pointed out through teacher and child reports may be easily mitigated through early intervention school-based programs.

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