The Concept of Free Essay

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Details:Take a position with respect to the following claim:  Human
beings are biological machines whose future has already been
determined by the past.  There is no such thing as free-will.
In your essay you should address the arguments of at least 2
philosophers from chapter 4 and at least 2 philosophers from chapter
5.  Explore the relationship between the mind-body problem and the
question of free will and determinism. In chapter 4 we learn about
Rene Descartes arguments,  Theodore Schick arguments, John Searle,
J.J. C.Smart, David Chalmers, Thomas Nagel, Jerry Fodor,and Ned Block
arguments. In chapter 5 we learn Baron d’Holbach, “Of the system of
man’s free agency”  (determinism and indeterminism); also William
James,”The Dilemma of Determinism”. Compatibilism, John Lock, An Essay
Concerning Human understanding”; and W.T.Stace, Religion and the
Modern Mind, William L.Rowe, “Two Concepts of Freedom”; also
Libertarianism, Peter van Inwagen, “An Essay on Free Will”, Richard
Taylor, “Metaphysics; Sartre’s profound freedom Jean-Paul Sarte, ”
Existentialism is a humanism.

 

Here’s a snippet of the essay.

 

In the excerpt below, I will conclusively examine different ideologies posed by some philosophers, concerning the concept of the existence of free will in human beings. I will refer to the relevant materials which include journals and books authored by the philosophers, which conspicuously reflect and outline their ideological stand on the subject.

 

Introduction

 

Free will is a concept commonly defined as the power or ability to make decisions or act without the constraint of fate or particular necessities, but under an individual’s own choice. In a nutshell the concept defines a state of having absolute freedom over one’s actions and decisions. Over the vast millennia, a debate has waged on concerning the validity of the actual possession of free will by human beings. Philosophers with antagonistic ideologies concerning this subject have contended on endlessly to no actual culmination, a situation which has finally caught on the attention of neuroscientists. While taking a neutral stand, the neuroscientists have opted to take on a scientific view in tackling the argument by combining both the Neurological, Psych iatrical and Psychological attributes of human beings to confront this argument. Research results, however, are still inconclusive as to the finality of this argument and the primary answer to this argument lies solely on individual opinion on the matter. Many philosophers and individuals altogether do solemnly believe that their fate is a pure result of their actions. The belief is driven by the notion that no external forces are capable of controlling or defining the fate of an individual, apart from the actions of the individual in question. The belief and line of thinking aligns with the ‘Karma’ notion in which an individual’s fate or future is determined by his or her previous actions. New research and ideologies however incline to the fact that humans do not actually possess the so called ‘free will’. Neuroscientists now define the brain as a maze of nerve cells, whose consistent firing is triggered by electrical and chemical events. They hence conclude that the brain has no room for free will.

 

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