Week 3: Research Critique Table, Framework, Model, and NIH Certification

Week 3: Research Critique Table, Framework, Model, and NIH Certification

Purpose

This assignment provides the opportunity to continue the development of the evidence-based practice (EBP) project proposal by adding the research critique table, theoretical framework and change model sections.  In addition, the student is required to complete the National Institutes of Health (NIH) certification regarding human subjects.  The NIH information focuses on the history of the legal and ethical issues related to research and informed consent.

Course Outcomes

This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcome:

 

CO#4 Develop knowledge related to research and evidence-based practice as a basis for designing and critiquing research studies (PO 1, 2, 6, 9)

Due Date Sunday 11:59 PM MT at the end of Week Three

Total Points: 85 points

Requirements

Description of the Assignment

For this assignment students are required to continue the development of their EBP project proposal by adding the new sections of:

  • Research Table Critique with reference citation and permalink for each reference
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Change model.

In addition, each student is required to complete the Protecting Human Research Participants (PHRP) course as presented by the National Institutes of Health.

Criteria for Content

  1. Research Critique Table (See Sample)
  • The PICOT/PICo question is presented after the title of the table
  • Students will select four (4) research-based studies and complete the Research Critique Table following the format noted in the sample.
  • All selected research-based articles must be consistent the selected PICOT/PICo question.
  • Complete citation of selected research study is required in the column labeled as Citation
  • Permalink for each research article is required and located in the column labeled as Citation
  • Reference list is required located Research Critique Table
  • The required column headings are:
    • Citation
    • Purpose of the research
    • Research design and sample
    • Data collection methods
    • Results
    • Strengths and limitations (both must be identified for each research study)

References

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-010-1619-z

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002822310002294

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-010-1507-6

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0738399110000388

https://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/ps.2010.61.8.765

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196064410005573

  1. Theoretical Framework (I want Leininger’s Theory of Culture, Caring, and Diversity)
  • Explain the theoretical framework that will be used in this project consistent the PICOT/PICo submitted
  • Describe how the theoretical framework is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question
  1. Change Model (Use Kotter’s Change Model)
  • Explain the change model that will be used in this project
  • Describe the steps within selected
  • Describe how the change model is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question
  1. Completion of PHRP Course as presented by NIH: (I will do this part)
  • All modules of the PHRP are required in order to earn the certificate of completion.
  • Completed certificate is uploaded into the assignment following the reference list
  • PDF format for the certificate is required

 

 

Preparing the Assignment

Criteria for Format and Special Instructions

  1. Using your lecture materials and textbook, completed detailed critiquing of four (4) research-based

studies by creating a table using the column headings noted in the sample that is included in these

assignment guidelines.

 

  1. Only research-based studies are to be included in this table. The research-based article may use either

an quantitative or qualitative approach as appropriate to the identified PICOT/PICo question.  For this

assignment, the selected references should avoid systematic research review (SRR), meta-analysis,

clinical practice guidelines, or any other secondary analysis articles.

 

  1. Identify this table as: Research Critique Table.

 

  1. One theoretical framework must be included and a reference cited for the information regarding the

framework.  The selected theoretical framework is added after the Research Critique Table.

 

  1. One change model must be included and a reference cited for the information regarding the change

model and its steps.  The selected change model is added after the theoretical framework.

 

 

  1. For the NIH training regarding human subjects, go to http://phrp.nihtraining.com/. You will need to

register for the NIH Training on the use of human subjects in research and complete all of the modules.

When you have completed the training, you will be awarded a NIH Training Certificate of completion.

Save this certificate and upload to this assignment after the reference list.  This training should take 2–  

     2.5 hours to complete. If you have taken this training within the past year, you may submit that

certificate. If you took the training more than a year ago, you need to retake the training course for

NR505.

 

  1. The NIH Training Certificate will be checked for authenticity. Submitting a non-authentic certificate will

result in a zero for this assignment and report regarding academic integrity will be submitted.

 

Directions and Assignment Criteria

Category Points % Description
Completion of PHRP Course as presented by NIH 10 12 Student completes and submits the certificate for completion of the NIH training accessed at http://phrp.nihtraining.com/

 

The required content for this section includes:

·      All modules of the PHRP are required in order to earn the certificate of completion.

·      Completed certificate is uploaded into the assignment following the reference list

·         PDF format for the certificate is required

Research Critique Table 40 25 The required content for this section includes:

·         The PICOT/PICo question is presented after the title of the     table

·         Students will select four (4) research-based studies and complete the Research Critique Table following the format noted in the sample.  Systematic research review articles may not be used for this critique.

·         All selected research-based articles must be consistent the selected PICOT/PICo question.

·         Complete citation of selected research study is required in the column labeled: Citation

·         Permalink for each research article is required and located in the column labeled: Citation

·          The required column headings are:

o   Citation

o   Purpose of the research

o   Research Design and sample

o   Data collection methods

o   Results

o   Strengths and limitations (both must be identified for each research study)

Theoretical Framework 10 12 The required content for this section includes:

·          Explain the theoretical framework that will be used in this project

·         Cite a reference for the selected framework

·         Describe how the theoretical framework is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Change

Model

10 12 The required content for this section includes:

·         Explain the change model that will be used in this project

·         Describe the steps within selected model

·         Cite a reference for the selected change model

·         Describe how the change model is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Paper Specifications 5 6 NIH certificate was submitted

Research Critique Table was submitted

Complete citation of research article and permalink included in the column labeled as Citation in the Research Critique Table

Reference list is required

A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment.

References are current – within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them prior to assignment submission.

APA Format (6th edition) 5       6 APA guidelines as found in the 6th edition of the manual are to be used to identify the research study used on the Research Critique Table.

One deduction for each type of APA style error

Writing Mechanics 5 6 Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and consistent with formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual.
Total   85 100 %

 

 

Research Critique Table (sample)

State the PICOT/PICo Question:

Citation Purpose of the research Research Design  and Sample Data Collection Methods Results Strengths (S)

Limitations (L)

Cavanaugh & Huse. (2014). Surviving the nursing Shortage:  Developing a nursing orientation program to prepare and retain intensive care unit nurses.  Journal of Nurse Executives, 16(2), 34-56.

 

Permalink

To create an orientation program that would produce competent nurses to work in the NICU who had no previous NICU experience. The orientation program would also be streamlined to ensure all new hired nurses were provided the same information and patient types Quantitative Study

N=27 nurse orientees over a two-year period

Formal preceptor program developed for identified preceptors

Orientation program developed to foster critical thinking, interpersonal relationships, and technical skills in new orientees

Caffarella’s program model used to create a program due to fluidness of the teaching model

Final orientation evaluation revealed 100% of orientees felt the program prepared them to competently work independently

The clinical educator identified key components of a successful program: well-prepared preceptors and biweekly conferences with the preceptor, orientee, and clinical educator

Retention rate after two years was 93%

S-program design/concepts transferrable to other nursing departments

L-small sample size

Hardy, J. & Smith, J. (2016)

Enhancing staff development with a structured preceptor program.  Journal of Nursing Education, 54(1), 101-110.

 

Permalink

To redesign an orientation program on an ICU unit due to high staff turn-over, low staff satisfaction rates, and a 14-bed expansion.

Orientation model based off Connelly and Hoffart and including the Myers-Biggs cognitive personality  style assessment

Qualitative Study: Phenomenological

Examination of previous orientation program with new design based on structure, identifying qualified preceptors, developing a preceptor course, and orientation packets for the new nurse

Current program lacked structure

Identification of staff nurses who would make effective preceptors, development of a preceptor educational course, management commitment, development of an orientation manual Greater satisfaction with preceptor role N=5 total staff who had gone through the preceptor class

New staff members feel orientation process is designed to meet learning needs

Increased overall staff satisfaction

Many employment applications due to referrals from current staff

S-study can be transferred to other types of nursing departments

L- no exact measurements regarding number of participants, possible bias of researcher

Loft, W. (2015). Moving forward: Creating a new nursing services orientation program.  Journal of Nurse Executives, 76(2), 56-61.

Permalink

 

To redesign a hospital orientation which would create a more meaningful experience for new employees. Quantitative: Descriptive Study: Predictive

N=74 surveys returned/reviewed from May to December 2004

May to June results were from the current orientation process

New orientation process began July 12

Redesign orientation based on Scope and Standards of Practice for Nursing Professional Development

Orientation checklist replaced self-study tests

Modular orientation classes set up to allow employees who did not need to specific classes the opportunity to spend time on assigned units

May and June results reflected what administrators already knew to be issues with current system

July through December results showed an overall improvement in satisfaction rates of the new orientation program

S- sample size of 74; able to critique results from the two programs; survey comprehensive using Likert-scale as well as open-ended questions

 

L-Unknown number of total orientation participants versus number of surveys returned;

a 3 month follow-up survey resulted in poor response, so no significant data was able to be reported

Meyer, G. & Meyer, S. (2017). Utilization-focused evaluation: Evaluating the effectiveness of a hospital orientation program. Nursing Leadership in Healthcare, 78(9), 90-98.

 

Permalink

To evaluate the effectiveness of current orientation practices and which aspects of the program were viewed as positive and which were viewed as negative Quantitative:

Descriptive study: Survey

N=59; total number of surveys distributed = 90

Improve areas of orientation program based on survey results Top three survey questions noted to be:

The need to provide quality time and opportunity to practice new clinical skills

Having a designated preceptor was important

Offering preceptor classes to potential preceptors was vital to successful orientation programs

S- The survey was pilot tested before distribution.

Surveys were distributed to all shifts in multiple departments

L-Small sample size (rate of return was 60%)

Modic, C. & Harris, Y.T. (2015). Masterful precepting: Using the BECOME method to enhance clinical teaching, Journal of Nursing Education, 67(12), 134-145.

Permalink

 

To provide staff unit educators a tool for educating and mentoring preceptors Descriptive Study: Survey

To examine commonly experienced orientee behavior

N= 342 from 13 states in the U.S. and Ontario, Canada

The classification and recognition of common orientee behaviors allows preceptor programs to include effective teaching strategies for preparing the preceptor when these behaviors are encountered The most frequently encountered orientee behavior was slowness and disorganization

Most strategies used by preceptors to deal with different orientee behavior fell into one of 6 categories: Behavioral, Emotive, Cognitive, Organizational, Modeling, and Elicit help

S-large sample size

L-fixed questions regarding preceptor education, results were unclear as to whether strategies provided by the preceptor in dealing with a difficult orientee was successful or not

Morris, C., Pfeifer, K., Catalano, R,  Fortney, G.,  Nelson, L.,  Rabito, B., & Harap, H. (2013). Outcome evaluation of a new model of critical care orientation. Critical Care Clinics of North America, 64(4), 573-582.

 

Permalink

To determine if a new orientation program had an effect on satisfaction, retention, turnover, staff vacancy, staff preparedness, and cost effectiveness Quasi-Experimental

N=173

A total of 197 nurses had participated in the new program, with only 173 giving consent to answer questions

Questionnaires were handed out to educators, managers, preceptors, and orientees.

Questionnaires were given at set intervals throughout the program and after the program for direct feedback.

Key components recognized by participants allowed the program develops to improve the current orientation program Two successful teaching strategies identified: pocket guides and time spent in the simulation lab (p=0.023)

The created Critical Care Institute program, which helped prepare new hire nurses for patient care was rated high among the different groups.

 

One year after the program was instituted:

-Retention rates increased by 2%

-Turnover rates decreased by 1.5%

-ICU vacancy rates decreased by 10%

Cost for the new program increased by $24,810

Length of orientation remained the same

S-Large sample size

L-No clear conclusions drawn regarding why certain values are so far below the national level (ICU vacancy rates and turnover rates)

Prouix, R. & Bourcier, C. (2017). Graduate nurses in the intensive care unit:  An orientation model.  Journal for Nursing Leadership, 33(10), 194-201. To find a more efficient way to develop skills during a new graduate nurse’s orientation and improve the orientation program Qualitative Study

Phenomenolog-ical

Examination of previous orientation program with new design based on themes found in recent literature regarding challenges and stresses of a new graduate nurse

Unit preceptor team

Program redesign based on the stages of skill acquisition of a new graduate nurse

Year 1: original goals of the program were met

Informal interviews at the conclusion of orientation yielded positive feedback

Preceptors found the redesign rewarding

New design saved the unit money

S-study can be transferred to other departments based on themes tested

L-No exact number of orientees mentioned; unsure of level of ICU patients; subjects were new graduate nurses only

Thomason, T.J. (2014). ICU nursing orientation and post orientation practices: A national survey. Nursing Leadership, 22(2), 67-75.

 

Permalink

To determine the national practices regarding current instruction methods, preceptor training, and post-orientation programs for ICUs. Descriptive study: Survey

A geographic map of the U.S. was divided into 7 regions. Inclusion criteria for hospitals included JC accredited and have one or more ICUs, not including pediatric ICU or progressive care units

N=24 hospitals participated; results obtained from either a telephone survey or electronic survey

Survey tool included 35 questions

Information gathered regarding national practices for ICU orientation programs including instruction methods and post-orientation support Orientation times based on previous experience and RN level

87% of hospitals used didactic, classroom education with average 73 hours spent

All hospitals surveyed reported the same three key elements to measure success of an orientation program

S-a beginning attempt to gather information regarding national orientation programs

L-small sample size

Electronic surveys sent to CNSs who had affiliation with organizations

Ward, G. H. (2013).  Enhancing orientation and retention: One unit’s success story. Applied Nursing Leadership, 4(1), 22-29.

 

Permalink here

To design an orientation program that supplies quality preceptors to new nurse hires which will arm them with skills to be successful in their positions and retain them within the organization Qualitative Study:

Phenomenolo-gical

N=22 orientees over a 2 year period (2011 to 2013)

Evaluation questionnaires were completed at the end of the orientation class

A department specific class was developed to help new department hires become familiar with the unit’s patient population and frequently performed procedures Participants felt overall the class was a valuable addition to their orientation

Retention rates on the unit increased from 44% in 2004 to 88% in 2006

S- Study examined orientees over a 2 year period

L-Interviews limited to one department

 

 

Note to  students:

 

Add  your selected theoretical framework information HERE

 

 

Add your selected change model information HERE

 

          Grading Rubric

 

Assignment Criteria

Exceptional

100%

Outstanding or highest level of performance

Exceeds

88%

Very good or high level of performance

Meets

80%

Competent or satisfactory level of performance

Needs Improvement

38%

Poor or failing level of performance

Developing

0%

Unsatisfactory level of performance

Content

Possible Points =   75 Points

Completion of PHRP requirements   10  Points Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable 0 Points
·         All modules of the PHRP are required in order to earn the certificate of completion.

·         Completed certificate is uploaded into the assignment following the reference list

·         PDF format for the certificate is required

 

Completed PHRP certification was NOT submitted by due date
 

Research Critique Table

40 Points 35 Points  32 Points 15 Points  0 Points
Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements:

·         The PICOT/PICo question is presented after the title of the table

·         Students’ select four (4) research-based studies

·         Systematic research review articles may not be used for this critique.

·         All selected research-based articles must be consistent the selected PICOT/PICo question.

·         Complete citation of selected research study is required in the column labeled: Citation

·         Permalink for each research article is required and located in the column labeled: Citation

·         The required column headings are:

o   Citation

o   Purpose of the research

o   Research Design and sample

o   Data collection methods

o   Results

o   Strengths and limitations (both must be identified for each research study)

 

Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements:

·         The PICOT/PICo question is presented after the title of the table

·         Students’ select four (4) research-based studies

·         Systematic research review articles may not be used for this critique.

·         All selected research-based articles must be consistent the selected PICOT/PICo question.

·         Complete citation of selected research study is required in the column labeled: Citation

·         Permalink for each research article is required and located in the column labeled: Citation

·         The required column headings are:

o   Citation

o   Purpose of the research

o   Research Design and sample

o   Data collection methods

o   Results

o   Strengths and limitations (both must be identified for each research study)

 

Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in the all of the following elements:

·         The PICOT/PICo question is presented after the title of the table

·         Students’ select four (4) research-based studies

·         Systematic research review articles may not be used for this critique.

·         All selected research-based articles must be consistent the selected PICOT/PICo question.

·         Complete citation of selected research study is required in the column labeled: Citation

·         Permalink for each research article is required and located in the column labeled: Citation

·         The required column headings are:

o   Citation

o   Purpose of the research

o   Research Design and sample

o   Data collection methods

o   Results

o   Strengths and limitations (both must be identified for each research study)

OR may have

There is one or two examples of incorrectly stated information

Presentation of information from following elements fails to meet expectations in one, two, or three elements:

·         The PICOT/PICo question is presented after the title of the table

·         Students’ select four (4) research-based studies

·         Systematic research review articles may not be used for this critique.

·         All selected research-based articles must be consistent the selected PICOT/PICo question.

·         Complete citation of selected research study is required in the column labeled: Citation

·         Permalink for each research article is required and located in the column labeled: Citation

·         The required column headings are:

o   Citation

o   Purpose of the research

o   Research Design and sample

o   Data collection methods

o   Results

o   Strengths and limitations (both must be identified for each research study)

OR may have

There is three, four, or five examples of incorrectly stated information

Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in four, five or six of the following elements:

·         The PICOT/PICo question is presented after the title of the table

·         Students’ select four (4) research-based studies

·         Systematic research review articles may not be used for this critique.

·         All selected research-based articles must be consistent the selected PICOT/PICo question.

·         Complete citation of selected research study is required in the column labeled: Citation

·         Permalink for each research article is required and located in the column labeled: Citation

·         The required column headings are:

o   Citation

o   Purpose of the research

o   Research Design and sample

o   Data collection methods

o   Results

o   Strengths and limitations (both must be identified for each research study)

OR may have

There is six or more examples of incorrectly stated information

Theoretical Framework 10 Points 9 Points 8 Points 4 Points 0 Points
Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements:

·         Explain the theoretical framework that will be used in this project

·         Cite a reference for the selected framework

·         Describe how the theoretical framework is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements:

·         Explain the theoretical framework that will be used in this project

·         Cite a reference for the selected framework

·         Describe how the theoretical framework is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in the all of the following elements:

·         Explain the theoretical framework that will be used in this project

·         Cite a reference for the selected framework

·         Describe how the theoretical framework is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Presentation of information from following elements fails to meet expectations in one or two elements:

·         Explain the theoretical framework that will be used in this project

·         Cite a reference for the selected framework

·         Describe how the theoretical framework is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in three elements:

·         Explain the theoretical framework that will be used in this project

·         Cite a reference for the selected framework

·         Describe how the theoretical framework is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Change Model 10 Points 9 Points 8 Points 4 Points 0 Points
Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements:

·         Explain the change model that will be used in this project

·         Describe the steps within selected model

·         Cite a reference for the selected change model

·         Describe how the change model is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements:

·         Explain the change model that will be used in this project

·         Describe the steps within selected model

·         Cite a reference for the selected change model

·         Describe how the change model is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in the all of the following elements:

·         Explain the change model that will be used in this project

·         Describe the steps within selected model

·         Cite a reference for the selected change model

·         Describe how the change model is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Presentation of information from following elements fails to meet expectations one or two elements:

·         Explain the change model that will be used in this project

·         Describe the steps within selected model

·         Cite a reference for the selected change model

·         Describe how the change model is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in three or four of the following elements:

·         Explain the change model that will be used in this project

·         Describe the steps within selected model

·         Cite a reference for the selected change model

·         Describe how the change model is useful to the selected PICOT/PICo question

 

Paper Specifications 5 Points 4 Points 3 Points 2  Points 0 Points
This section included all of the following:

·         NIH certificate was submitted

·         Research Critique Table was submitted

·         A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment.

·         References are current – within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them prior to assignment submission.

·         Reference list is included

·         Permalink for each research study presented in the Research Table Critique is provided on the reference page

This section included four of the following:

·         NIH certificate was submitted

·         Research Critique Table was submitted

·         A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment.

·         References are current – within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them prior to assignment submission.

·         Reference list is included

·         Permalink for each research study presented in the Research Table Critique is provided on the reference page

This section included only three of the following:

·         NIH certificate was submitted

·         Research Critique Table was submitted

·         A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment.

·         References are current – within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them prior to assignment submission.

·         Reference list is included

·         Permalink for each research study presented in the Research Table Critique is provided on the reference page

This section included only two of the following:

·         NIH certificate was submitted

·         Research Critique Table was submitted

·         A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment.

·         References are current – within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them prior to assignment submission.

·         Reference list is included

·         Permalink for each research study presented in the Research Table Critique is provided on the reference page

This section included one or less of the following:

·         NIH certificate was submitted

·         Research Critique Table was submitted

·         A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment.

·         References are current – within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them prior to assignment submission.

·         Reference list is included

·         Permalink for each research study presented in the Research Table Critique is provided on the reference page

Possible format points  10 points
APA Format 6th edition 5 Points 4 Points 3 Points 2  Points 0 Points
APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the

·         Body of table (including citations and headings), and assignment content.

 

One deduction for each type of APA format error

0 to 1 APA error was present

APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the

·         Body of table (including citations and headings), and assignment content.

 

One deduction for each type of APA format error

2 –  3 APA errors were present

APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the

·         Body of table (including citations and headings), and assignment content.

 

One deduction for each type of APA format error

4 – 5 APA were are present

APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the

·         Body of table (including citations and headings), and assignment content.

 

One deduction for each type of APA format error

6 – 7 APA were are  present

APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the

·         Body of table (including citations and headings), and assignment content.

 

One deduction for each type of APA format error

8 or greater APA errors were present

Writing Mechanics 5 Points 4 Points 3 Points 2  Points 0 Points
1–2 errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual 3 – 4 errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual

 

5 – 6 errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual

 

7 – 8 errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual

 

9 or greater errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual

 

Total Points _____of  85 points

 

 

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