First and Second Language Acquisition Stages Essay.

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Stages of learning foreign languages.


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First and Second Language Acquisitions Stages

People are eager to learn a foreign language. According to Damian (2014), people may learn multiple languages to expand their knowledge, visit different countries, acquire new friends and get more job opportunities. In other words, learning a new language can build a person’s culture as well as expand their opportunities in life. Language acquisition is a process that has many challenges. However, the challenges experienced during first language acquisition differ from the challenges during second language acquisition. Ipek (2009) states that people face different challenges while learning a second language. The process of language acquisition has gained attention from researchers who seek to understand the different stages that first and second language learners go through to obtain the language. Language acquisition is a process that happens in three stages, namely; the silent period, formulaic speech, and structural and semantic simplification. These stages are influence my myriad factors. This paper elucidates the three stages of language acquisition as well as the factors influencing them.


First Stage: Silent Stage

The Silent Stage of First Language Acquisition

Sadek (2006) defines the silent or the preproduction period as a period of time when children are unable to speak, but they observe and listen to adults in order to obtain the language. During this stage children can understand most of the language, but they are just able to express feelings by doing some actions or performances without orally responding. Children in this stage should not be forced by adults to speak unless they are ready to speak. Additionally, children in all cultures can understand more than they can orally produce words. Moreover, Cunningham & Shagoury (2014) emphasizes that understanding and complete comprehensions of a language come before the ability to produce words. Therefore, a child may spend months listening to people around without being able to utter the words they hear.

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